The Orlesian Empire, or simply Orlais is currently the largest and the most powerful nation in Thedas. It was founded by Kordillus Drakon I and its capital is Val Royeaux, which also serves as the Chantry's seat of power and home of the Divine. Orlais is ruled by an Emperor or Empress.
- 1 History
- 2 Culture and society
- 3 Politics
- 4 Foreign relations
- 5 Geography
- 6 Notable people with Orlesian origins
- 7 Notes
- 8 Trivia
- 9 Gallery
- 10 See also
- 11 References
History[edit | edit source]
Two of the human tribes that arrived in Thedas, the Ciriane and Inghirsh, settled in the region that became known as Orlais and were the ancestors of modern Orlesians. The Ciriane settled in central Orlais and were loosely defined and culturally rich. The Inghirsh, who settled in northern Orlais and southern Tevinter, were easily defeated in their conflict against the Neromenians, as they were a decentralized and nomadic people. The Ciriane people, on the other hand, were largely isolated and remained a strong and distinct group until the founding of Orlais. In modern times, Ciriane culture has all but disappeared.
At the outbreak of the First Blight, the Ciriane fought besides the Tevinters and the Grey Wardens in order to defeat the Archdemon Dumat. Later on, during Andraste's Exalted March against the Imperium, she expelled the Tevinters from a large portion of Orlais. After the war in -165 Ancient, the southern Tevinter Imperium was divided between Maferath's sons, including the former lands of Inghirsh.
In -155 Ancient, the Ciriane united into a kingdom in a moment known as the Grand Unification, implemented by Isorath, Maferath's oldest son. He forced many culturally distinct communities together in an attempt to create more efficient barriers against the likelihood of a Tevinter return to conquest. When word got out about Maferath's betrayal of Andraste in -160 Ancient, Isorath's brother Verald lost control of Nevarra City and fled to Orlais to begin a campaign to take Orlais from his older brother. It was at this time that Isorath's wife, Jeshavis, the first female chieftain of the Ciriane, or gjǒya, put her plan of getting rid of the Alamarri influence over the Ciriane into motion. She manipulated Verald into killing his own brother and married him when he emerged victorious. When Isorath was dead, she got rid of the last Alamarri in Ciriane lands and killed her new husband and all of his direct descendents. This began the long period of conflict between Ciriane and Alamarri and then Orlais and Ferelden. Jeshavis went on to rule for forty-two years.
In -11 Ancient, the cults of the Maker spread quickly in the southern lands, initiating the construction of the first great temple in Val Royeaux, which was to become a major center of worship for the new faith. One of its most fervent followers was the young king of Orlais, Kordillus Drakon, who began a series of holy wars in the name of the Maker, quickly proving himself to be one of the greatest generals in history. By -3 Ancient, having conquered several neighboring city-states and forced others to submit to his overlordship, Kordillus Drakon was crowned an emperor in Val Royeaux, with Orlais becoming an empire it is to this day. His ambitions to spread farther north into the Free Marches were confounded by constant pressures from the Dales to the east. During his reign, the Chantry was formed as the Maker's cult became the official religion. Drakon also sent missionaries in order to spread the Chantry's teachings.
With Justinia I becoming the first Divine of the Chantry in 1:1 Divine, the free use of magic was declared illegal in Orlais except by those mages operating under the direct auspices of the Chantry.
In 1:5 Divine the Second Blight broke out. Emperor Drakon led the fight against the darkspawn, in part by recruiting mages to his cause and letting them unleash their full power. Under his command, humanity achieved several victories and at the time of his death in 1:45 Divine, the Orlesian empire had expanded into the Anderfels and most of the western Free Marches. However, his son, Kordillus II, did not possess the same political savvy, and the Anderfels declared their independence in 1:65 Divine.
In 2:5 Glory, the border skirmishes between the Dales and Orlais increased in number. In 2:9 Glory the elves attacked the Orlesian town of Red Crossing and quickly took it over. Orlais declared war, but the elves quickly managed to capture Montsimmard and besieged Val Royeaux. At this point, Divine Renata I called for an Exalted March against the attacking elves. Although the elves eventually sacked Val Royeaux and pushed well into human lands, Halamshiral was conquered and the elves were completely crushed by 2:20 Glory. The Dales were annexed to become part of the Orlesian Empire and alienages were created for the elven population who submitted.By decree of Divine Renata I, any Chantry art in Orlais depicting elves was destroyed save a single mural of Shartan (with his ears cropped). A faithful reproduction still exists in the University of Orlais.
In 3:10 Towers, the Third Blight began, and the darkspawn attacked the Orlesian cities of Arlesans and Montsimmard. The Orlesians were able to push them out of their borders. By 3:18 Towers, due to constant pressure from the Grey Wardens, they sent aid to the beleaguered city-states of the Free Marches. In 3:25 Towers, the Orlesian armies participated in the final battle of the Third Blight in Starkhaven. However, they then took advantage of the weakened state of the Free Marches and occupied the city-state of Nevarra until their ousting in 3:65 Towers.
Between 4:40 Black and 5:10 Exalted, the Andastrian Chantry recruited armies from all of its domains in order to conquer Tevinter. Within that period, four Exalted Marches were called, all of them failures. In 4:80 Black, the Orlesian Empire took advantage of the Alamarri's fractured state and crossed the Frostback Mountains to invade the land for the first time. The campaign lasted for three years until the Fereldan teyrns once again united to push the Orlesians back. The Empire had hoped to take the port of Highever and therefore switch to supplying their forces by sea rather than by Gherlen's Pass, but the fortress of Redcliffe held out for longer than expected, and winter in the Frostbacks left many Orlesian forces unsupplied. By the spring of 4:84 Black, most Orlesian troops had pulled out or been captured.
In 5:12 Exalted, the Fourth Blight began and Orlais sent only a token force to help its neighbors. The first king of the Nevarran Van Markham family, Tylus Van Markham, was crowned after having claimed to be a descendant of Drakon's son. He proved his military might by winning several major battles against the Orlesians, establishing Nevarra as a new, growing power.
In 7:25-85 Storm, during the Qunari Wars, three Exalted Marches were called upon by the Divine against the Qunari. During the wars, Orlais managed to steal the Tome of Koslun. In 7:44 Storm, the newly crowned emperor of the Orlesian Empire, Freyan, allowed women to become knights, after witnessing of the death of Ser Aveline, the Knight of Orlais. In 7:60 Storm, the Qunari occupation of Kirkwall was lifted by an Orlesian chevalier named Ser Michel Lafaille, who became its first Viscount on behalf of the Emperor of Orlais. In 7:99 Storm, the end of war with the Qunari and the birth of twin boys to Emperor Etienne I ushered in the Blessed Age.
In 8:5 Blessed, Kirkwall rebelled against Orlais and re-gained the status of a free city. 8:24 Blessed, the Orlesian Empire under the direction of the "Mad Emperor" Reville invaded the kingdom of Ferelden. Due to the clandestine support of a number of powerful banns undermining the kingdom's defence, the Orlesian military quickly established a strong foothold and fully occupied the country by 8:44 Blessed. The war with Ferelden gave the Pentaghasts the perfect opportunity to take their revenge on Orlais. They had been biding their time since 7:97 Storm, when Emperor Etienne set aside his wife of fifteen years, Princess Sotiria Pentaghast, to marry his mistress. While most of the Orlesian army was still committed to the war in Ferelden, Nevarra declared war, promptly taking a number of cities. Though the Orlesians eventually rallied a defense, the city of Perendale was lost to the Nevarrans and never recovered. This defeat lost Emperor Reville the favor of the court, who turned to his twin brother Grand Duke Gratien instead (who had no desire to take the throne). In 8:47 Blessed, Emperor Reville had Gratien, his wife, three grown children, and all eight grandchildren murdered. The youngest, Camille, was only eight months old. Reville died after spending more than a year locked in his room, fearing retribution for his assassination of Gratien's family. In 8:96 Blessed, the young Fereldan prince Maric Theirin took over the leadership of the Fereldan Rebellion after his mother's assassination, and Emperor Florian was forced to send more chevalier legions to support the rule of his first cousin and king of Ferelden, Meghren.
In 9:2 Dragon, Ferelden was freed from Orlesian occupation. The relations between the two countries remained tense, but after Celene I's ascension of throne, Ferelden and Orlais officially made peace. After 9:14 Dragon, the new viscount of Kirkwall, Perrin Threnhold, enforced exorbitant fees on Orlesian ships docking in his city, prompting Emperor Florian, through Divine Beatrix III, to pressure the Templar Order stationed in Kirkwall to overthrow him.
In the years leading up to the Mage-Templar War, many Orlesian nobles began to plot to re-conquer Ferelden after the Fifth Blight left the kingdom in a weakened state. This was against Empress Celene's wishes, who did what she could to hold the peace and bring her nobles under control. In 9:38 Dragon, unrest brews in Orlais as Grand Duke Gaspard de Chalons stirs dissent against reigning Empress Celene. Two years later, he openly moves against her, starting the War of the Lions.
Culture and society[edit | edit source]
Orlais is famed for its culture and extravagance. Drakon's legacy continues to heavily influence Orlesian laws and social customs.
The capital city is Val Royeaux, which boasts the University of Orlais: a major center of learning that attracts young nobles from all over Thedas with the best education one can buy. The University is a relatively modern institution, whose liberal-minded professors have already clashed with religious conservatives over the content of their classes. This is likely to become a much larger issue in the future.
The Summerday holiday is particularly holy in Orlais. This holiday celebrates the beginning of summer and on this day children who come of age wear white tunics and gowns and join a procession to the local Chantry. When they reach it, they are taught the responsibilities of being an adult. It is celebrated at the beginning of Molioris.
In their personal lives, many Orlesians favor habits such as indulging in alcohol or smoking kohl pipes (kohl is considered particularly illicit within the Circle of Magi). They also tend to prefer small "toy dogs" as companions, as opposed to the hearty Mabari wardogs favored in Ferelden.
Art[edit | edit source]
Art is particularly prized in Orlais, and has been a focus of Celene's reign, who has inspired something of a cultural renaissance.
Famous artists include the legendary Henri de Lydes, whose mural of Andraste and her Disciples was the only piece of Chantry art not destroyed for featuring elves following the Exalted March on the Dales (Shartan is depicted in the mural, though his ears were cropped), and the painter Caliastri. Nobleman and sculptor Arwand de Glace also created a controversial nude sculpture of Andraste that was censored in an unusual manner. In more recent times, Ambrose Dumont, who mainly works with woodcuts, and Reynerius d'Auberive, a cosmetician and painter, have proven very popular at the Orlesian court.
Under Celene's rule, the restrictions on artistic expression imposed by the Chantry or the current ruler on theater have been lifted, leading to a resurgence in popularity. The sphere of theater, and thus the goings-on in one of Orlais' most prestigious establishments, is a close reflection of the political climate of the country. Many a social scandal will even find itself immortalized as a play. Though theatrical works reflect central themes of Orlesian culture, such as disdain towards Fereldens and reverence for Kordilius Drakon, a few striking contrasts can also be found. In a country where The Grand Game can be a matter of life and death, a character's importance to the play and their gender is clearly defined by the appearance of their mask, an article which once donned, is understood to be absolutely them. Elves have also done well in the theaters of Orlais, and are not only allowed to hold main parts and play humans but can also socially progress upon becoming famous.
Orlais also has traditions of puppetry, many of which were taken from Antiva. The most famous puppet shows are baroquely ornate creations created for high opera or religious festivals. In the Dragon Age, shadow puppetry has risen in popularity.
Notable plays include:
- The Sword of Drakon: an Examination of the Life and History of the Father of Orlais, by Marquise Freyette - the first play to portray Drakon as a man beset by doubts, now a staple of Orlesian theater
- The Heir of Verchiel, by Paul Legrand - its first performance featured city elf Victor Boyet in the lead role, who was so well received the emperor rose from his seat when Boyet took the stage
- Wilkshire Downs, by A. Pourri - an enduringly popular play in which flatulence plays a major role
- The Setting of the Light, by Lumiere Bartlet - historians claim that the play's conclusion was at once so hauntingly beautiful and shockingly vile it sparked the Great Riot of Val Royeaux in 4:52 Black. Only 14 pages remain today.
- Death in the Mansion, by Violette Armand - first play to use "False Face" (characters changing masks during the story), which was highly controversial at the time but has become unremarkable in recent times.
- The Fall of Elderath, a puppet play about Andraste's father.
Architecture[edit | edit source]
Orlesian architecture is heavily influenced by secular Gothic style. Just the same for clothing, no expense is spared for rich materials for prominent buildings, and architects do not shy away from colour. Blue, gold and white in particular are distinct colours for nobility. White marble with gold detail is a signature style for interiors. Impression is the biggest goal; it does not matter if a building is weak, so long as it does not look weak. Even the smallest objects are built with flair. Aesthetics trump practicality every time.
It is not uncommon to see religious iconography in secular buildings. Andraste and other Chantry figures are frequently incorporated into ornamentation.
Expensive renovations to keep up with trends occur as ages pass, but under it all is the same, rotting wood. The further away from the heart of the rich you go, the less extravagant things get, and the more flaws become visible.
The class divide[edit | edit source]
Orlais is a nation where class and social politics frequently rule the day. As such, the concerns and lives of the various classes can differ greatly. Among the nobility a penchant for high fashion is common, often copied in other lands such as Nevarra and the Free Marches but always at its most extreme within Orlais. Both men and women wear cosmetics of various kinds, with subtle differences that indicate social standing. In public, they are also prone to wearing very elaborate masks. These are hereditary and identify one's family almost as uniquely as the heraldry on a crest. Servants also wear masks in public that are simpler and not so elaborate as their masters' which indicate the noble household they serve.
Aristocratic society is vicious and marked by fawning envy to the powerful. Bards often entertain nobles in their courts despite their roles as spies, assassins and saboteurs for their employers who are usually other nobles. Nobles welcome such entertainers with full knowledge that any could be a bard; the thrill of outwitting a spy is a notion the Orlesian aristocracy can hardly resist.
The lives of Orlesian nobility may give the impression that life is easy and prosperous for all. However, the lives of commoners are often much more difficult, while all aspire to the lives of the noble class. Many Orlesians are hardly well-to-do and work as freeholders, or else laborers on another's property, often leading to general discontent and simmering resentment. For a class of people with little besides belief in the Chant of Light to uplift their lives, this discontent may cause friction with those seen as having unfair privileges or else upsetting their routine or religious beliefs, such as mages.
Furthermore, Orlesian commoners are at the mercy of the nation's needs in a way that the nobility, and even the Chantry (including the Circle of Magi and Templar Order), are not. During war times, press gangs led by the nobility commonly force Orlesian peasants into military service willingly or no. Those who are not conscripted may be left starving by the demands of the army or else taken as slaves by opportunistic bandits.
Additionally, the chevaliers are allowed great liberties with commoners, up to and including murder and sexual assault.
The lot of elves in Orlais is unique as well, even from the common classes. Servitude, (often bearing little difference from outlawed slavery), is the existence of many. However, despite the aesthetic appreciation Orlesians have for elves, and the fact that some can potentially live more richly than most commoners, there does not seem to be the hope of social ascendance for them that is a possibility, however small, for humans.
Fashion[edit | edit source]
A bare face in Orlais is considered gauche, especially in the presence of a foreigner or a commoner.
The Orlesian nobility, and those who serve publicly, are prone to wearing very intricate--as opposed to simply gaudy--masks in public. These masks, often half-masks specifically, are hereditary and identify one's family and social class almost as uniquely as the heraldry on a crest: a family might be associated with a lion crest, and matching lion masks will identify them in public. Retainers and servants wear a simpler form of a family's mask. Family symbols are well known among the Orlesian public, and anyone attempting to wear a mask that doesn't belong to their house runs the risk of a quick death if discovered.
Wearing makeup is another popular tradition for both men and women in Orlais. Even chevaliers may wear cosmetics. There is both masculine and feminine makeup, although outsiders may have trouble telling the difference. Makeup can be a strong indicator of social standing. The quality and rarity of one's makeup—uncommon hues and consistencies are prized—speak volumes of one's status.
Orlesian nobility has clothing which is made of rich dyes, complex patterns and fine fabrics. Rare colours and materials are used to imply wealth and status. They often lean towards flowing, layered garb.
Food[edit | edit source]
Orlesian food is famous for being elaborate and extravagant. It has also been described as frilly and pretentious. Specialty dishes include the Nug-Nug, a dish made to look like a nug peeking out of a burrow and favored by Orlesian children; butter soup, a nourishing soup for convalescents, children, and field workers; the nesting roast, a delicacy first conceived by chef Bernard Huileux that consists in stuffing a quail in a pheasant stuffed in a swan. Many different kinds of desserts exist as well: the Blessed Apple, a pie made with apples from the orchards of Ghislain, supposedly blessed by the Maker at Andraste's request; Marie du Lac Erre's Sweet Ruin, tea biscuits sandwiched with cream and jam (there are also variations including chocolate); various confections of cake, wafers, cream, and fruit.
As for drinks, Orlais is the first importer of Antivan wine in Thedas, and possesses its own vineyards as well. Spiced wine has been a popular drink in the Winter Palace since the Glory Age. The elves of Orlais usually drink dandelion wine instead, as they cannot afford vineyards or even grapes of their own.
Politics[edit | edit source]
Under the rule of the legendary Kordillus Drakon, the fledgling nation of Orlais rose to prominence. He used the Second Blight to expand its borders and the influence of the Chantry. While Orlais in the Dragon Age is nowhere near as large as it was under Drakon, it remains the most powerful nation in Thedas, and Drakon's legacy continues to heavily influence Orlesian laws and social customs.
In Orlais, land is owned exclusively by the aristocracy and titles are granted by the Council of Heralds. Power rests solely in the Emperor or Empress as in many monarchies in Thedas where power descends from the throne, unlike Ferelden whose power derives from the support of freeholders. The Orlesian aristocracy's right to rule stems directly from the Maker. There exists neither the concept of rule by merit nor the slightest notion of rebellion. If one is not noble, one aspires to be—or at the least aspires to be in the good graces of a noble, and is ever watching for a way to enter the patronage of those better placed in the Grand Game.
Many Orlesian nobles belong to its renowned knightly order, the chevaliers. The martial training of the chevaliers is legendarily harsh, instilling in the knights a fierce discipline and code of honor that takes precedence over the value of their own lives. The penalty for dishonor is death, something that a chevalier would welcome if he or she has failed their lord. They are honored by many and are considered amongst the best of all soldiers but they also have unlimited rights when it comes to handling the peasantry; a cause of many conflicts.
The Grand Game[edit | edit source]
- Main article: The Grand Game
"The game" refers to the perpetual competition for influence and esteem between the Orlesian nobles. Every Orlesian of noble birth is subject to their peers' manipulation, if not as a player, then as a pawn. While the Chantry and its affiliate organizations of the Templar Order or Circle of Magi may seemingly be a way 'out' of the game, they too are still susceptible to manipulation.
The goals of the game are personal prestige, reputation, and patronage, and its "rules" are as simple as "anything goes". Nobles often employ assassins or, more often, bards to accomplish these goals. Social engineering is also important in this aspect of Orlesian culture, and masks, elaborate dress and social engagements are important tools to further the Game.
The lower classes of Orlesian society also attempt to participate in the Game, even though it would be assumed they would view it with contempt. However, despite the Game offering a veneer of genuine social mobility through accumulated wealth and patronage, with the ultimate aim of a title, the chances of this happening are in reality very slim. Though it appears meritocratic, the Grand Game offers most commoners only a faint hope that "is enough to keep the poor preoccupied and the rich in power."
Royalty and nobility[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Orlesian royalty and nobility
Foreign relations[edit | edit source]
Centuries of expansionist behavior has contributed to Orlais having sour relations with its neighbours. The empire has invaded Ferelden twice, battled with Nevarra, organized four Exalted Marches against Tevinter, squandered favor with the Free Marches and crushed the Dales. The Ferelden people they especially look down upon, thinking them brutish and uncivilized. They are sneered down upon as 'Ferelden turnips'.
However, they maintain a good relationship with the dwarves of Orzammar with which they share borders in the western side of the Frostback Mountains. The dwarves provide the empire with lyrium and minerals, as well as smithing. Lyrium is especially important as it is consumed by the Chantry's templars.
Geography[edit | edit source]
Settlements[edit | edit source]
- Val Royeaux - Capital, location of the first Circle of Magi in the White Spire, the Grand Cathedral, the headquarters for the Seekers of Truth, the Imperial Palace and the University of Orlais.
- Ghislain - location of the third Circle of Magi
- Halamshiral - Former capital of the Dales and home of Empress Celene's Winter Palace
- Jader - Nearest major Orlesian city to Ferelden.
- Lac d'Argent - Village on the path from Halamshiral to Jader, Empress Celene passed there briefly during her escape from Gaspard's armies
- Lydes - ruled by Duke Remache de Lydes
- Montfort - Ancestral home of the Montfort noble family.
- Montsimmard - Headquarters of the Orlesian Grey Wardens and a second Circle of Magi
- Val Chevans
- Val Chevin
- Val Colline
- Val Falaise
- Val Firmin
- Val Fontaine
- Val Foret
- Val Gamord - Town near the Gamordan peaks, ruled by Marquise Effiloche Bouffon
- Val Henar
- Val Montaigne - ruled by Duchess Yvonne Blanchard
- Velun - a small town
- Verchiel - ruled by Grand Duke Gaspard de Chalons
Fortresses[edit | edit source]
Regions[edit | edit source]
- Alyons - a region which neighbours Serault
- The Arbor Wilds - a large and untouched forest in the south of Orlais, where ancient elven ruins still remain undisturbed
- Arl Dumat
- The Blasted Hills - on the border of the Anderfels
- Lake Celestine - a lake located in the Heartlands of central Orlais
- Claose - A land of fertile valleys near Serault
- The Dales
- Deauvin Flats - a region with good hunting grounds
- Ezoire - Described as a lofty mountain domain
- Fields of Ghislain - on the border of Nevarra
- Frostback Mountains
- The Heartlands - The region between Lake Celestine and the shores of the Waking Sea, well known for its excellent wine and marvelous estates. Perhaps the richest place outside Val Royeaux.
- Hunterhorn Mountains with the Gamordan Peaks in the south
- Nahashin Marshes
- Serault - a struggling Marquisate on the edge of Orlais
- The Western Approach with the Abyssal Rift 
- Ylenn Basin - A region south of the Imperial Highway between Montsimmard and Verchiel, a beautiful place of walnut groves, hollyhocks and fifth rate meaderies
Notable people with Orlesian origins[edit | edit source]
- Ser Aveline - The first female Chevalier
- Aveline Vallen - Companion to Hawke
- Briala - Spymaster of Empress Celene
- Clarel de Chanson - Warden-Commander of Orlais
- Empress Celene I - Ruler of Orlais
- Fiona - Grand Enchanter of the Circle of Magi
- Grand Duchess Florianne de Chalons
- Grand Duke Gaspard de Chalons - Leader of the Chevaliers
- Jeshavis- Mother of Orlais, first female gjoya, or chieftain, of the unified proto-Orlesian tribe and creator of the Game
- Divine Justinia V - Divine of the Andrastian Chantry between 9:34 and 9:41 Dragon
- Knight-Captain Evangeline de Brassard
- Arlessa Isolde of Redcliffe
- Katriel - An Orlesian bard who took part in the Fereldan Rebellion
- Kordillus Drakon I - First Emperor of Orlais
- Leliana - Left Hand of the Divine, and the Inquisition's spymaster
- Marjolaine - Bard of Orlais
- King Meghren - Ruler of Ferelden during the Orlesian Occupation
- Ser Michel de Chevin - Champion of Empress Celene
- Duke Prosper de Montfort - A senior Orlesian nobleman, and close ally of Empress Celene
- Duke Remache of Lydes
- Emperor Reville - the "Mad Emperor"
Notes[edit | edit source]
- The sun is the symbol of the Orlesian Empire.
- The Imperial Highway enters Orlais from its northeast borders with Nevarra. One branch moves northwest until Andoral's Reach while the other moves through the Heartlands and Val Royeaux and then turns east towards the Frostback Mountains.
- Orlais was given its name by one of the sons of Andraste and Maferath, after her betrayal and death.
- There is a thriving thieves' guild in Orlais. In the capital it appears to operate at least in part in the sewers, making use of the "sous de gens", the poorest of the poor who live there. Elves may also join the local guild to make a living, willingly or unwillingly.
Trivia[edit | edit source]
- It is a tradition for Orlesian children to line up and beg for "petit alms" from passing travelers.
- In the expansion pack Dragon Age: Origins - Awakening, if the player chooses not to import a previous Warden character, they have the option to play as a Grey Warden new to the series, an Orlesian Warden-Commander, starting at level 18.
- Mary Kirby has stated that France was the starting point of inspiration for Orlais, but since then the developers were inspired by many things that are not French.
- Orlais was once called Arles. The name was changed because Arles is a real town in France.
- The prominent use of gold and white in Orlesian architecture is reminiscent of Vatican City.
Gallery[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]